Sperm whales swim in all oceans, except the Arctic. In summer, the subtropics migrate to cold waters and swim in the Mediterranean and Baltic seas. Often they can be found off the coast of West Africa and Japan. Sperm whales are the only ones who migrate during the migration of the equator.
Sperm whales perform the deepest dives among mammals. In pursuit of prey they dive to a depth of 1.2 km. In order to sink underwater for 1 hour, the sperm whale should be able to ventilate the lungs for 10 minutes and saturate the blood with oxygen. Occasionally they collect from the bottom of crabs, crabs, sponges and even stones. Since the stones are not destroyed by gastric juice, they are apparently needed by sperm whales to mechanically grind food in the stomach. The feeding sperm whale is able to stay under water for up to 1.5 hours, which is promoted by the high content of myoglobin in its muscles and the reduced sensitivity of the respiratory center to the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the blood.
The speed of the grazing sperm whale is 5-6, the sailing – 9-13, the pursued or wounded – 16-30 km / h. The fountain of the sperm whale is wide, tilted forward and to the left, up to 2-3 m high. When the whale prepares to dive deeply, it high-lifts the tail blades and leaves almost vertically into the water. If the sperm whale, diving, does not show the tail, then it sinks shallowly. Excited sperm whales completely jump out of the water, falling with a deafening splash, loudly clapping on the water with tail blades. Underwater, they are guided by hearing and echolocation, producing three types of sounds: short and frequent clicks, moaning squeaks and frequent crackling.