The vast majority of geckos lead a nocturnal or twilight lifestyle. They have strongly enlarged eyes with a vertical, dilated pupil in the dark, devoid of mobile eyelids. Instead of the eyelids, they only have a transparent membrane, which they periodically clean up with the tongue. The extraordinary structure of the eyes of the gecko helps to more fully diaphragm the field of view in the light during the day, while (which is very important!) Allows you to build a clear image in absolute darkness, covering the maximum field of view. In many cases, one or both of the edges of the sagittal pupil can be sawed in such a way that when the teeth of opposite sides are closed the pupil splits into a series of small dotted holes, each of which focuses an independent sharp image on the retina of the eye. Overlapping each other, these images in low light create the necessary brightness for visual perception, while at the same time providing a clear image.
This possibility is provided by the most complicated structure of the gecko’s feet. Using an electron microscope, scientists have discovered that on the fingers of a gecko there are very thin hairs (bristles), only 0.1 millimeter in length (two thicknesses of a human hair). They are placed very tightly – up to 14,400 bristles per 1 mm2 or about 1.5 million per square meter. In this case, each bristle, in turn, at the end diverges into 400-1000 branches. At the end, each branch ends in a triangular spatula. These spatulas make up a width of only 0.2 micrometers (2/10 000 millimeters). It turns out that each foot of the gecko with a contact area of slightly more than 1 cm2. Can touch the surface with two billion endings!
To place the same amount of human hair with a density of average head of hair, it would take an area of a whole football field!
Researchers from several American universities with the help of special tools found that the surface of the foot of the gecko area of 1 square. See is able to develop a binding force of 10 Newton (which corresponds to 1 kg of weight).
There is a satanic gecko. This gecko has a tail like a fallen leaf. There are individuals with red eyes. It dwells in fallen leaves in dimly lit places.
The Turkish gecko has a tummy, almost as transparent as glass. If you put it on a transparent glass table and look from below, you can see all of its internal structure,
The Madagascar day gecko is so named, for the first time it was found in Madagascar. However, such geckos are also found in Hawaii. The picture seems to be a battle for territory between two individuals of this species.
From other lizards they are distinguished by three red stripes in the lower back and blue circles around the eyes.
New Zealand green geckos have a body completely painted in green, while their mouths and tongues can be red, blue, orange, black, pink or yellow!