Reindeer live in different climatic conditions and eat all kinds of vegetation. The basis of the diet are berries, fruits, grass, mushrooms, shrubs, leaves of trees, nuts, needles, acorns, chestnuts, bark, young branches. In the tundra and in winter 90% of the staple food of the reindeer is lichen, which they can smell even under a thick layer of snow up to 60 mm. In such a difficult period for deer, this is the most nutritious food.
When a reindeer needs additional vitamins and minerals, it can eat small rodents and birds. Also in search of additional useful substances reindeer are looking for solonetzes to lick the salt and gnaw the earth to get the missing minerals.
Reindeer are one of the most common mammals. The family of reindeer has 51 species. The smallest representative of this family weighs only 2-2.5 kg, and the largest reaches up to 700 kg. The habitat of deer North and South America, Eurasia. With the arrival of Europeans in Australia and New Zealand, these cloven-hoofed animals were brought there. In addition, reindeer are found in Africa, but only in the northern and western parts.
Most species of reindeer live in small groups, although there are species living alone. For example, reindeer during the migration period from groups gather in large herds, which can reach more than 100 thousand individuals.