Even before the climate change on the planet, the penguins lived in a temperate climate. With climate change and the shift of Antarctica to the South Pole, many species of animals left the ice-covered continent. Only a small number of adapted animals have mastered life in Antarctica. Penguins were one of them. Some species of penguins left Antarctica and settled in other parts of the Southern Hemisphere.
Now in Antarctica there are only 2 species of penguins: the Imperial and Adelie. They can also be found in the coastal waters of Antarctica.
The closest relative of the Imperial Penguin, the Royal Penguin, inhabits the islands in the Southern Hemisphere: Kerguelen, South Georgia, the South Sandwich Islands, Tierra del Fuego, Macquarie, Heard, Crozet.
Another of the representatives of the penguin family, the crested penguin, lives on the islands of Subarctic, Tasmania and off the coast of South America.
On the islands of Solander, Stewart and on the South coast of New Zealand, there is a tall-beaked penguin or, so-called, the penguin of Victoria.